Histopathology Theory Paper

SECTION A: MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS (20 MARKS)
1. Specimen accessioning involves:
(a) Harvesting of specimens
(b) Giving the specimens a unique laboratory number
(c) Transportation of specimens
(d) Analysis of specimens

2. Main chromophores used in synthetic dyes include the following EXCEPT:
(a) Nitro group
(b) Azo group
(c) Quininoid group
(d) Orange G

3. Aqueous mounting medium include:
(a) Glycerine
(b) Xylene
(c) Xam
(d) DPX

4. Tool edge microtome knife is exceptionally good for:
(a) Unde-calcified bones
(b) Brain
(c) Lungs
(d) Liver

5. Section crumbling is as a result of:
(a) Paraffin wax being too soft
(b) Tilting knife too much
(c) The rate of sectioning being too slow
(d) Microtome vibration

6. The purpose of adhesive application is:
(a) To stop tissue from cracking
(b) To ensure sections are firmly attached to the slide
(c) For permanent preservation
(d) To increase refractive index

7. Tissue processing by use of molten paraffin wax involves the following procedures EXCEPT:
(a) Clearing
(b) Dehydration
(c) Hydration
(d) Infiltration

8. Criteria of abnormal cells include:
(a) Single nucleus
(b) Normal cytoplasm
(c) Increase in nuclear/ cytoplasm ratio
(d) Reduced nuclear/ cytoplasm ratio

9. The following are for colour restoration in museum technique:
(a) Kaiserling solution I
(b) Kaiserling solution II
(c) Spirit
(d) Water

10. Factors considered during tissue processing include?
(a) Period of processing
(b) The type of fixative
(c) the volume of fixative
(d) The size of the tissue

11. Components of embedding include the following EXCEPT:
(a) Leuckhart.
(b) Tissue tek
(c) Paraffin wax
(d) Alcohol

12. Which of the following microtomes DOES NOT use stainless steel microtome knife?
(a) Freezing
(b) Base-sledge
(c) Rotary
(d) Ultra-thin

13. An example of section adhesive is:
(a) Mayer’s egg albumin
(b) DPX
(c) Thymol
(d) Gelatin

14. In staining, blueing is achieved by:-
(a) Strong acids
(b) Weak acids
(c) Basic solutions
(d) 1% acid alcohol

15. Examples of trapping agents added to stains include:-
(a) Copper
(b) Aluminium
(c) Iron
(d) Phenol

16. The following are endogenous pigments EXCEPT:-
(a) Melanin
(b) Calcium
(c) Haemosiderrin
(d) Formalin

17. Haemosiderin will stain………. in PPB:
(a) Red
(b) Black
(c) Yellow
(d) Blue

18. Advantages of automatic tissue processing technique include:
(a) Time to process the tissue is considerably reduced
(b) It can be used to process the tissue even if it is not working hours
(c) No dehydration is required
(d) No clearing is required

19. Cryostat microtome is good for:
(a) Frozen section
(b) Brain
(c) Fatty tissues
(d) Hard tissues

20. The process of removing excess stain until specific structures are sharply defines is called:
(a) Dehydration
(b) Clearing
(c) Differentiation
(d) Impregnation

SECTION B: ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS (30 MARKS)

  1. (a) Define fixation (5mks)
    (b) Highlight criteria of a good fixative (5mks)
  2. Define the following terms:
    (a) Stropping (2mks)
    (b) Honing (2mks)
    (c) Serial section (2mks)
    (d) Accentuators (2mks)
    (e) Post chroming (2mks)
  3. Write short notes on rotary microtome (10mks)