Histology and cytology theory paper

  1. Histology is the study of:-

a) Abnormal body tissues

b) Normal body tissues

c) Diseased body tissues

d) History of disease that affects body tissues

 

  1. Postmortem specimens are referred to as:-

a) Autopsies

b) Biopsies

c) Histology

d) Pathology

 

  1. Use of chemical reactions to determine the presence of important organic and other molecules within the cells and tissues is referred to as:-

a) Biochemistry

b) Histology

c) Histochemistry

d) Fluorescence microscopy

 

  1. Specimens for histological examination obtained during surgery are called?

a) Autopsies

b) Biopsies

c) Human pathology

d) Human tissues

 

  1. Tissues that have been sliced or cut for microscopic examination are called?

a) Biopsies

b) Autopsies

c) Sections

d) Pathology

 

  1. The following are physical methods for determining the composition of cells and tissues. Which one is NOT:-

a) Fluorescence microscopy

b) Chemical reactions

c) Scanning electron – probe microanalysis

d) Autoradiography

 

  1. The technique selected for tissue preparation for microscopic examination is governed by the factors. Which one is NOT:-

a) The amount and nature of the tissue

b) The urgency of the investigation

c) Type of tissue whether fresh or preserved

d) None of the above

 

  1. Teased preparation of tissue is preferred when studying.

a) Cellular contents of the tissue

b) Mitosis fats

c) Enzymes

 

  1. Fresh enzymes can be examined as_____ Which one is NOT?

a) Frozen tissue

b) Smears

c) Teased Preparation

d) Preserved tissue

 

  1. Post mortem changes that occur in tissues are called?

a) Putrefaction and autolysis

b) Pyknosis

c) Karyorrhesis

d) Karylysis

 

  1. Postmortem changes can be retarded or prevented in a chemical substances known as?

a) Preparations

b) Fixatives

c) Autolysis

d) Acids

 

  1. Squashed preparation of tissues is good when studying?

a) Cellular contents

b) Mitosis

c) Fats

d) Enzymes

 

  1. Which one among the following is a desired quality of a good fixative:-

a) It must have a bad effect on stains

b) It should be expensive

c) It should produce irritant vapors

d) It must inhibit autolysis

 

  1. The following are simple fixatives. Which one is NOT:-

a) Formaldehyde

b) Mercuric acid

c) Zenker’s fluid

d) Acetone

 

  1. The following are microanatomical fixatives. Which one is NOT:-

a) Formal sublimate

b) Helley’s fluid

c) Suza Heidenhain

d)  Acetone

 

  1. Secondary fixation is done to improve:-

a) Preservation and staining of tissues

b) Quality of the tissue

c) Analysis of the tissue

d) None of the above

 

  1. Decalcification of tissue is done through the following methods. Which one is NOT:-

a) Use of mineral acid

b) Use of ion exchange resin

c) Use of chelating agent

d) None of the above

 

  1. A physical method of determining the endpoint of decalcification is done through?

a) Mechanical and X-ray methods

b) Ion exchange resin method

c) Biochemical methods

d) Electrolysis

 

  1. Dehydration of tissues is?

a) Removal of water from tissues

b) Removal of acids from tissues

c) Removal of calcium from tissues

d) Addition of water in microliters to tissues

 

  1. Chemical substances that are made up of two simple fixatives are called?

a) Simple fixative

b) Compound fixative

c) Superior fixative

d) Concentrated fixative

 

  1. A good decalcifying fluid should:-

a) Be very dilute

b) Be acidic

c) Be kept in a brown bottle

d) Not impair subsequent staining

 

  1. Tissue dehydrators include:-

a) Xylene

b) Chloroform

c) Pyridine

d) Carbon dioxide

 

  1. The following tests are done to determine the endpoint of decalcification except:-

a) Mechanical probing

b) X –rays methods

c) Probing with needle

d) Ion exchange resin

 

  1. Paraffin wax can be used as:-

a) Softening agents

b) Mounting media

c)  Embedding media

d) Plasticizer

 

  1. Washing out is mainly done on tissues that are:-

a) Fixed in 10% formal saline

b) Cleared in saline

c) Fixed in potassium dichromate

d) Dehydrated in alcohol

 

  1. Vacuum impregnation is done under reduced pressure and it enables:-

a) The clearing agent and air to rapidly removed from tissues

b) The clearing agent and air to penetrate deeply into the tissue

c) The clearing agent to mix toughly with the air

d) The clearing agent to support impregnating media

 

  1. The following are microtomes that are commonly used. Which one is NOT:-

a) Cambridge rocker

b) Base sledge

c) Pyridine

d) Sliding

 

  1. The following are knives used in histology for section cutting. Which one is NOT:-

a) Plano concave

b) Biconcave

c) Cryostat

d) Plane wedge

 

  1. Which one of the following is an advantage of ester wax:-

a) Has a low melting point

b) Has a high melting point

c) Do not provide ribbons

d) None of the above

 

  1. Benzene is used in tissue processing as:-

a) Dehydrating agent

b) Clearing agent

c) Impregnating agent

d) Embedding agent