Histology Theory Paper

SECTION A (ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS) 20 MKS)

  1. If a collected tissue is left without any preservation, then a bacterial attack will occur. Which of the following describes this process?
    (a) Autolysis
    (b) Desiccation
    (c) Putrefaction
    (d) Coagulation
  2. Which of the following is not a transition solvent in tissue processing?
    (a) Xylene
    (b) Toluene
    (c) Acetone
    (d) Chloroform
  3. All labeling in tissue transportation containers must be sufficiently robust to withstand the planned storage method and transport while remaining fully legible. Which of the following information must be contained in the label?
    (a) Tissue identification
    (b) The name of the person obtaining the tissue if not clearly identified above
    (c) The date of tissue collection
    (d) All of the above
  4. Which of the following is technique introduced to specimens that may be difficult to cut on microtome due to calcium deposits?
    (a) Dehydration
    (b) Infiltration
    (c) Decalcification
    (d) Differentiation
  5. The following are histological special staining EXCEPT:
    (a) Haematoxylin & Eosin (H&E)
    (b) Giemsa
    (c) Ziehl-Neelsen
    (d) Gram’s
  6. The indicator for complete dehydration in tissue processing is
    (a) Anhydrous copper sulphate
    (b) Anhydrous zinc sulphate
    (c) Blue litmus paper
    (d) Saturated ammonium oxalate
  7. Which one of the following is a tissue softener?
    (a) Perenyi’s fluid
    (b) Formaldehyde
    (c) 10% normal saline
    (d) Neutral buffered formalin
  8. Secondary fixation is done after fixation of a tissue in:
    (a) Mercuric chloride
    (b) Heidenhain’s susa
    (c) Zenker fluid
    (d) 10% formal saline
  9. Methods of identifying the end point of de-calcification include:
    (a) X-ray method
    (b) Chelating method
    (c) Electrolyte method
    (d) Ion exchange resin method
  10. All of the following are dehydrating agents except:
    (a) Butanol
    (b) Dioxane
    (c) Acetone
    (d) Toluene
  11. The finest type of hone include:
    (a) Carborundum
    (b) Arkansas
    (c) Belgian yellow
    (d) Aloxide
  12. The following are characteristics of malignant cells EXCEPT:
    (a) Increased nuclear to cytoplasm ratio
    (b) Decreased nuclear to cytoplasm ratio
    (c) Hyperchromasia of the nucleus
    (d) Irregular nuclear membrane
  13. Advantages of automatic tissue processing technique include:
    (a) Time to process the tissue is considerably reduced
    (b) It can be used to process the tissue even if it is not working hours
    (c) No dehydration is required
    (d) No clearing is required
  14. The following are synthetic mounting media EXCEPT:
    (a) DPX
    (b) Canada balsam
    (c) Colophonium
    (d) Euparal
  15. The fixative of choice for cytological smears is:
    (a) 10% formal saline
    (b) Picric acid
    (c) 95% ethanol
    (d) Iso-propyl alcohol
  16. The term ‘bring sections to water’ involves:
    (a) Dehydration and hydration
    (b) Dewaxing and hydration
    (c) Dewaxing and dehydration
    (d) Dehydration and clearing
  17. Post-chromatization is:
    (a) Treatment of tissue with 3% potassium dichromate after normal fixation
    (b) Unmasking fatty substances
    (c) Washing tissue sections in water
    (d) Is done before fixation
  18. Specimen accessioning involves:
    (a) Harvesting of specimens
    (b) Giving the specimens a unique laboratory number
    (c) Transportation of specimens
    (d) Analysis of specimens
  19. The role of exfoliative cytology includes:
    (a) Assessment of hormonal function
    (b) Fixation of tissue sections
    (c) De-calcification of bone tissues
    (d) Extraction of diseased tissues of the body
  20. Transitional epithelium is mainly found in:
    (a) Ureter
    (b) Urinary bladder
    (c) Bronchiole
    (d) Small intestine
    SECTION B: SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS
  21. (a) Highlight the importance of including positive and negative controls during staining
    (b) Explain principle of Perl’s Prussian blue (PPB) staining reaction
  22. (a) Explain chemical theory of staining
    (b) Write short notes on oxidation of crude haematoxylin
  23. (a) Define the term ‘decalcification’
    (b) Outline steps in the chemical method of testing endpoint of decalcification