Histology and Cytology Theory Paper

  1. Simple fixatives include:-

a) Zenker’s fixative

b) Acetic acid

c) Bouins fluid

d) Citric acid


2. Malaria pigments are removed by:-

a) Potassium permanganate

b) Alcoholic picric acid

c) Sodium thiosulphate

d) Sulphuric acid


3. ZN stain is used to demonstrate:-

a) Tubercule bacilli

b) Lactobacilli

c) Leprosy bacilli

d) Spirochaetes


4. Stained sections should be stored away from direct light because light:-

a) Makes the stain to fade

b) Interferes with microscopy

c) Introduces background staining

d) Introduces air bubbles


5. Vital staining employs cells which are:-

a) Frozen

b) Unfixed

c) Ether-alcohol fixed

d) Viable


6. Dyes which posses both acidic and basic reactive groups are classified as:

a) Acidic dyes

b) Basic dyes

c) Neutral dyes

d) Compound dyes


7. To prevent infection, highly infectious tissues should be trimmed:

a) In a low-temperature oven

b) In a fume cupboard

c) In a cool place

d) In a fridge


8. Some of the methods designed to improve tissue preservation after fixation include:-

a) Freeze-dying

b) Decalcification

c) Freeze substitution

d) Post-mordanting

e) Post chroming


9. Tissue processing can be influenced by factors such as EXCEPT:-

a) Type of specimen

b) Equipments used

c) Amount of heat involved

d) Agitation

e) Specimen size


10. Clearing of tissues can be termed as:-

a) Addition of alcohol to a tissue

b) Removal of xylene from a tissue

c) Removal of alcohol from a tissue

d) Removal of water from a tissue

e) Removal of wax from a tissue


10. Fixatives are classified into:-

a) Active and passive fixatives

b) Hardening and softening fixatives

c) Normal and abnormal fixatives

d) Nuclear and cytoplasmic fixatives

e) Nuclear and cytological fixatives


11. What is added to formalin to prevent acidity and formation of paraformaldehyde?

a) Magnesium carbonate

b) Buffer solution

c) Citric acid

d) Calcium chloride

e) Sodium Chloride


12. Tissue sections clinging to the knife during cutting are due to:-

a) Paraffin wax too hard

b) Presence of calcium ions

c) Very thick sections

d) Knicked knife

e) Dirty knife-edge


13. To achieve preservation of aqueous mounting media, the following is added during its preparation:-

a) Gelatin

b) Cane sugar

c) Absolute alcohol

d) Phenol

e) Picric acid


14. The purpose of floating out tissue sections is:

a) To melt out the wax

b) Hydrate the sections

c) De-wax the sections

) Remove creases from the sections

e) Remove oil from under the surface of sections


15. Eosin is best considered as a:

a) Nuclear stain

b) Cytoplasmic stain

c) Pure chromatin stain

d) Fat stain

e) Cytological


16. To evaluate nuclear sex chromatin, the preferred source of cells is:-

a) Cervix

b) Vagina

c) Buccal mucosa

d) Penis

e) Skin


17. The embedding process is important for the following reasons:-

a) Give support to the tissue

b) Remove water

c) Increase air spaces

d) Remove alcohol

e) Facilitate staining


18. Which of the following is an example of a counterstain used during the Papanicolaou staining technique?

a) O.G.6

b) Eosin Azure

c) Carbol fuchsin

d) Heamatoxylin

e) Methylene blue


19. During honing, the following are observed:-

a) Toe leading, heel following

b) Rough edges of hone are used

c) No abrasive used

d) Heel leading toe following

e) Knife dry