Histology and Cytology Theory Paper

  1. Dehydration of tissues by use of alcohol can be hastened by: –

a) Keeping tissues in the refrigerator

b) Exposing tissues to air and sunlight

c) Raising the temperature to 37ºC

d) Adding copper sulfate to dehydrating alcohols

e) Using hot air oven at 56ºC


2. Which of the following tissue pigments are birefringent under polarized light: –

a) Carbon

b) Formalin

c) Melanin

d) Copper

e) Malaria


  1. Fragmentation of the tissue nucleus if the tissue is not fixed immediately after removal from the body is known as: –

a) Pyknosis

b) Mutation

c) Karyolysis

d) Karyorhexis

e) Karyogonesis


  1. Which of the following statements is/are true of a rotary microtome?

a) Has no operating handle

b) Is used for knife sharpening

c) Block holder moves and the knife is stationary

d) Best for cutting frozen sections

e) Has no micrometer screw


  1. Adhesive(s) used to attach tissue sections onto a slide include: –

a) Starch paste

b) Aluminium oxide

c) Soapy water

d) Mayer’s egg albumin

e) Paraffin wax


  1. Expected results in a verhoeffs’ hematoxylin stained tissue section are:

a) Nucleus – blue

b) Cytoplasm – black

c) Elastic fibers – black

d) Reticulin fibers –red

e) Nucleus – black


  1. The purpose of floating tissue sections in a warm water bath after cutting is to: –

a) Allow cutting of ribbons

b) Make sections to stain well

c) Enable proper embedding

d) Allow study of enzymes

e) Remove creases


  1. Malaria pigment in tissue sections can be removed by: –

a) Washing in tap water

b) Hydrogen peroxide

c) Alcoholic potassium hydroxide

d) 20% sulphuric acid

e) Alcoholic picnic acid


  1. The purpose of adding sugars to aqueous mountants is/are to: –

a) Prevent cracking and drying

b) Solidity the medium

c) Preserve sections better

d) Raise the refractive index

e) Attach section onto the slide


  1. The occurrence of scores in tissue sections is due to: –

a) Soft embedding media

b) Dirty embedding

c) Excessive angle of tilt

d) Improper tissue processing

e) Loose block holder


  1. A malignant cell presents the following features:

a) Absence of chromatin granules

b) Enlarged cytoplasm

c) Hyper chromic nucleus

d) Enlarged nucleus

e) Hypochromic nucleus


  1. During the demonstration of haemosiderin chain in tissue sections, distilled water must be used because of it:

a) Has neutral pH

b) Is free from Iron salts

c) Reacts to produce ferric ions

d) Lyses red blood cells

e) Rinses the tissue better


  1. Turpentine is used during the demonstration of Mycobacterium leprae in tissues to: –

a) Decolonize the tissue

b) Remove mycolic acid

c) Stain the bacterium

d) Dehydrate the tissue

e) Remove paraffin wax


  1. Secondary fixative includes:

a) Formal sublimate

b) Picric acid

c) Von Ebner’s’ fluid

d) 10% formal saline

e) Schauddins fluid


  1. Which of the following is/are used as abrasives during microtome knife sharpening: –

a) Aluminium oxide

b) Mercuric chloride

c) Starch paste

d) Mayers’ egg albumin

e) Potassium dichromate


  1. Cell autolysis is caused by:

a) Bacterial decay

b) Rupture of mitochondria

c) Lysis by lysosome enzyme

d) Over dehydration

e) Golgi apparatus degeneration


  1. The end-point of decalcification can be assessed by:

a) Nitric acid

b) Dehydration

c) Chelating agents

d) X-ray

e) Palpitation


  1. 1 % urea added to nitric acid used during decalcification of tissue is to:

a) Increase the rate of decalcification

b) Make the tissue soft

c) Prevent the formation of yellow color

d) Dilute the acid

e) Raise the refraction index


  1. Post mortem changes that occur in tissues once removed from the body can be retarded by:

a) Proper tissue impregnation

b) Use of low temperatures

c) Application of chemical fixatives

d) Use of dehydrating agents

e) Cutting proper sections


  1. Exfoliative cytology fixatives for postage of slides include:

a) 50% ethanol

b) Carnoy’s fluid

c) Carbowax 1500

d) Ethanol/ether mixture

e) Resin fixatives


  1. Counter stains used in Papanicolaou staining method include:

a) Orange G

b) Acridine orange

c) Martius scarlet

d) Picric acid

e) Eosin azure


  1. Metallic impregnation is a method used to demonstrate the following structures:

a) Lipids

b) Collagen fibers

c) Acid-fast bacilli

d) Cell nucleus

e) Reticulum fibers


  1. The following is/are moulds used in histology

a) tissue baskets

b) leukhards

c) curetting basket

d) block holders

e) tissue jars


  1. Formation of paraformaldehyde precipitate in formaldehyde solution can be prevented by the addition of:

a) picric acid

b) sodium hydroxide

c) acetic acid

d) sodium chloride

e) alcohol


  1. Which of the following fixatives can cause dermatitis on long exposure to the skin?

a) Acetic acid

b) Trichloroacetic acid

c) Potassium dichromate

d) Formaldehyde

e) Flemmings’ fluid


  1. Additives used to harden paraffin wax to facilitate the production of thin tissue sections include:

a) Ester waxes

b) Starch paste

c) Cellulose

d) Bee wax

d) Paraplast


  1. The number of paraffin wax changes during impregnation is dependant on:

a) the density and size of the tissue

b) type of microtome to be used

c) clearing agent used

d) type of microtome knife to be used

e) staining method to be applied


  1. The following is/are histochemical staining method:

a) Silver impregnation

b) Ziehl Nielsen

c) Periodic acid schiff

d) Pearl’s Prussian blue

e) Haematoxylin and eosin


  1. The best fixative for the preservation of chromosomes is

a) Hellys’ fluid

b) Flemmings’ fluid

c) Gendres fluid

d) Zenkers’ fluid

e) Formal sublimate


  1. The ingredients of Scotts’ tap water include:

a) Sodium chloride

b) Methyl alcohol

c) Acid alcohol

d) Magnesium sulfate

e) Sodium bicarbonate