Histology and Cytology Theory Paper

  1. In the small intestine, absorption is done by:

a) The lumen

b) Serous coat

c) Mucus coat

d) Villi

e) Mesothelial cells


2. Glycerin jelly is used to mount

a) Permanent preparations

b) Temporary preparations

c) Sections stained with oil red ‘O’

d) Sections stained with Giemsa

e) Sections cleared in xylene


3. The portion of the tubercle bacilli which gives it its acid fastness is:-

a) The flagella

b) Amino acid

c) Carbohydrate

d) Lipid mycolic acid coating

e) Its red colour


4. Vacuum impregnation is useful during processing because it:-

a) Reduces time in paraffin wax and chloroform

b) Reduces time in paraffin wax

c) Cuts down the cost of processing

d) Improves ribboning

e) Facilities staining reaction


5. The fixative of choice for the fixation of gross specimens is:-

a) Bouin’s solution

b) Picric acid

c) 10% buffered formal saline

c) Zeker formal

d) Wentworth’s solution


6. Infiltration time with molten paraffin wax depends on:-

a) Thickness of tissue

b) The fixative used

c) Costing out

d) Density of the tissue

e) The dehydrating agent used


7. What is the purpose of tissue clearing after dehydration?

a) To give colour contrast

b) To remove water from the tissue

c) To remove alcohol and replace it with a solvent of the mountant

d) To fix the tissue

e) To raise the refractive index of the tissue and make the differentiation more evident


8. Disadvantages of water-soluble waxes are:-

a) Slow penetration

b) Being insoluble in dehydrating agents

c) Blocks being kept in a dry atmosphere

d) Difficulty in floating sections

e) Failure to readily dissolve in water


9. The most important procedure in the preparation of tissue for microscopic examination is:-

a) Proper preservation

b) Identification of the organ

c) Choice of clearing agent

d) Staining technique

e) Choice of mounting media


10. Xylene is used in histology for:-

a) Dehydrating tissues

b) Clearing sections

c) Impregnating tissue

d) Staining sections

e) Fixing tissues


11. Formalin pigments are found in:-

a) Lymphocytes

b) Skin

c) Lung

) Scalp

e) Blood forming organs


12. 20% isopropyl alcohol is used for:-

a) Differentiating haematoxylin

nb) Removing folds from ribbons of sections

c) Testing the end-point of decalcification

d) Dehydration sections

e) Softening tissue


113. The following are steps in mitosis EXCEPT:

a) Telophase

b) Anaphase

c) Prophase

d) Multinucleation

e) Metaphase


14. Postmordanting has the following effect:-

a) Formation of pigments

b) Removing of blood clots

c) Removing of calcium salts

d) Making tissue opaque

e) Improving staining property of sections


15. Dehydration of sections entails:

a) Using ascending grades of alcohol

b) Using descending grades of alcohol

c) Using absolute alcohol

d) Using 95% alcohol

e) Using neat cedarwood oil


16. The following is true about D.P.X

a) Contains Distrin

b) Used to make temporary preparations

c) Used to make permanent preparations

d) Contains water

e) Does not make sections transparent


17. The ideal thickness of sections for light microscopy is:

a) 3-3mm

b) At least 10 µm

c) 3-5cm

d) 3-5µm


18. Which of the following epithelial lines the thyroid?

a) Ciliated

b) Columnar

c) Stratified

d) Pseudo stratified

e) Cuboidal


19. The commonest microtome used to cut paraffin wax sections is:

a) Cryostat

b) Base sledge

c) Rotary

d) Freezing microtome

e) Ultra-microtome


20. The following are functions of mRNA

a) Reduction of globulins

b) Protein synthesis

c) Formation of ribose sugars

d) Formation of pigments

e) Formation of deoxyribose sugars


21. The third stage of mitotic cells division is:-

a) Telophase

b) Prophase

c) Metaphase

d) Interphase

e) Anaphase


22. The following is/are structures found in the cytoplasm of a cell:-

a) DNA, nucleoli, golgi apparatus

b) Golgi apparatus, lysosome, mitochondria

c) Nucleoli, chromosome, glycogen

d) Nucleoli, chromosome, lipoproteins

e) Genes, glycogen, endoplasmic reticulum


23. All of the following comprises of the body systems except

as) Musculo skeletal

b) Reproductive

c) Glandular

d) Nervous

e) Excretory


24. When labeling histological specimens ordinary ink is not used because

a) It is toxic

b) It may colour the specimen

c) It may cause autolysis of specimen

d) It may dissolve in the reagents used during processing

e) It may harden the tissue


25. Vapour fixatives include the following:-

a) Mercuric chloride

b) Potassium dichromate

c) Formaldehyde

d) Osmium tetroxide

e) Picric acid


26. Washing out is normally done on tissue fixed in:-

a) 10% formal saline

b) Acetic acid

c) Potassium dichromate

d) Alcohol

e) Picric acid


27. Chemicals frequently encountered in medical laboratories with proven carcinogenic properties include:

a) Xylene

b) Alcohols

c) Methylene blue

d) O-toluidine

e) Methyl violet


28. Colloidin embedded tissue blocks are stored in:-

a) Cold dry place

b) An incubator

c) 70% alcohol

d) Absolute alcohol

e) Distilled water