Hematology Theory Paper

1)The cells responsible for graft rejection are:

a) Big lymphocytes

b) Plasma cells

c) Thymus dependent cells

d) B- lymphocytes

e) T- lymphocytes

 

2)Activation of complement C1, C4 and C2 require:

a) K+ ions

b) Na+ ions

c) Ca++ ions

d) Mg++ ions

e) Fe++ ions

 

3)Inhibitory effects of blood specific substances affect:

a) I gG anti A

b) I gG anti B

c) I gM anti-A

d) I gG anti D

e) I gM anti B

 

4)Failure to wash red cells when performing Coomb’s test will:

a) Cause lysis of red cells

b) Cause false-negative results

c) Cause false-positive results

d) Neutralize Coombs reagents

e) Cause agglutination of RBCs

 

5) When the allelic genes are not alike the individual is said to be:

a) Homozygous

b) Heterozygous

b) Dominant

d) Hemizygous

e) Recessive

 

6)Amorphs are:

a) Genes which have a detectable effect

b) Chromosomes which produce a detectable effect

c)d) Genes in mitosis

d) Genes which produce no detectable effect

e) Genes produced as a result of crossover.

 

7)The sum total of blood group genes inherited from both parents constitute an individual:

a) Phenotype

b) Genotype

c) Homozygosity

d) Heterozygosity

e) Blood group.

 

8. Volunteers for ABO grouping sera preparation should have:

a) Serum with low titer

b) Serum with low specificity

c) Serum with high titer

d) Serum with good avidity

e) Serum that would react after 10 minutes.

 

9. 1M calcium chloride added to plasma:

a) Transforms it to serum

b) Inhibits bacterial growth

c) Coagulates proteins

d) Colours the antisera

e) Delays deterioration of the serum

 

10 Proteolytic enzymes used in serological work:

a) Digest RBCs membranes exposing hidden antigens

b) Includes Dolichos biflorus

c) Includes bromelin

d) Includes Vicia graminea

e) Inhibits antibody activity

 

11. Agglutinins A and B are absent in the following conditions:

a) Cord blood

b) Agammaglobulinaemia

c) Aged serum

d) Serum from patients with leukaemia

e) Bombay phenotype.

 

12. The ability of an antigen to stimulate the production of corresponding antibodies is known as:

a) Specificity

b) Avidity

c) Agglutination

d) Immunogenicity

e) Haemolysis

 

13. When human cells are reacted with anti H, the strong reaction is observed with:

a) A cells

b) B cells

c) O cells

d) A1 cells

e) A1 B cells

 

13. Anti – e will react with the red cells of the following genotypes:

a) R2Rz

b) R1r

c) R״ry

d) R0R2

e) Rzry

 

14. “Dosage effect” is particularly demonstrated in red cells from the following blood group system(s):

a) ABO

b) Lewis

c) Rhesus

d) MNSs

e) P

 

15. To improve tissue oxygenation without overloading the circulation:

a) Exchange transfusion is done

b) Plasma is transfused

c) Packed cells are transfused

d) Whole blood is transfused

e) Buffy coat is transfused

 

16. The force expressed at the boundary of shear and results from the difference in electrostatic potential is called:

a) Ionic cloud

b) Slipping plane

c) Di-electric constant

d) Zeta potential

e) Iso electric point

 

17. Which of the following antibodies, that gives a characteristic of mixed field agglutination of large agglutination in a sea of free cells:

a) Anti P

b) Anti Fya

c) Anti Xga

d) Anti Lua

e) Anti Jka

 

18 Direct Coombs test is used for:

a)( Diagnosis of Haemophilia

b) Diagnosis of incompatible crossmatch

c) Diagnosis of auto-immune haemolytic anaemias AIHA

d) Diagnosis of Aplastic anaemia

e) Diagnosis of leukaemias

 

19 The pan-agglutination due to the bacterial alteration of red blood cells is also known as:

a) Raynaud’s phenomenon

b) Robinson phenomenon

c) Matunasi – agata phenomenon

d) A prozone phenomenon

e) Habener – Thomson – Freiedenreich phenomenon

 

20 The following preservatives prevent bacterial contaminations in antisera:

a) Heating the serum at 70°c for one hour

b Sodium fluoride

c) Acriflavin

d) Phenothiazide

e) Sodium azide

 

21. The blood bank fridge should have:

a) Electricity ran alarm

b) Battery ran alarm

c) Thermostatistically controlled temperature recorder

d) Freezing compartment

e) Minimum and maximum thermometer

 

  1. Cryoprecipitate:

a) Is used for the treatment of multiple clotting factor deficiencies

b) Is given to haemophilic patients

c) Is used for the treatment of patients with low white cell count

d) Required for the treatment of anaemic patients

e) May be obtained from stored blood

 

  1. The purpose of using controls while performing ABO blood grouping is to:

a) Check the labelling of the specimen

b) Check the speed of the reaction

c) Check the potency of the reagents

d) Check the suitability of the technique used

e) Check the acidity of the reaction

 

  1. Bombay phenotype individuals:

a) Have agglutinins AB & H

b) Have antigens H only

c) Lack gene A and B only

d) Have agglutinogens A, B and H

e) Cannot receive blood from group O individuals

 

  1. Which of the following can be transmitted through blood transfusion:

a) Hepatitis B surface antigen

b) Neisseria meningitides

c) Gonorrhoea

d) Typhoid fever

e Diabetes