Hematology Theory Paper

SECTION A: MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS (20 MARKS)

Q1: Which of the following is related to polycythemia:

(a) Raised WBC count
(b) Decreased PCV
(c) Normal hemoglobin
(d) Elevated PCV

Q2: Wintrobe method is performed in the laboratory to investigate:

(a) Red blood cells
(b) White blood cells
(c) Mean cell hemoglobin
(d) Packed cell volume

Q3: The following items are used in the preparation of normal saline

(a) 8.5gms sodium chloride in 100mls distilled water
(b) 0.85gms sodium chloride in 1000mls distilled water
(c) 8.5gms sodium chloride in 100mls formalin
(d) 0.85gms sodium chloride in 100mls distilled water

Q4: A proper peripheral blood smear is prepared on:

(a) Glass slide
(b) Grease free glass slide
(c) Glass slide with some oil immersion
(d) Heated glass slide

Q5: Leukemia can be defined as:

(a) A clonal neoplastic proliferation of white cells in the blood and/or bone
(b) Pathological disorder with leucocytosis
(c) Hemolysis of red blood cells
(d) The clonal neoplastic proliferation of red cells in the blood

Q6: Internal quality control must be performed:

(a) Before specimen analysis
(b) Two hours after analyzing specimen
(c) Not necessary
(d) After specimen analysis

Q7: The following is not used to stain peripheral blood films:

(a) Giemsa’s
(b) Jenner’s
(c) Papanicolau’s
(d) Leishman’s

Q8: The anticoagulant of choice in coagulation studies is:

(a) Trisodium citrate
(b) Heparin
(c) EDTA
(d) fluoride

Q9: The following stain is used in the laboratory examination of reticulocytes:

(a) Neutral red
(b) Prussian blue
(c) Papanicolaou
(d) Methylene blue

Q10: Which one of the following white blood cells is the least common white cell in the blood and is functionally very similar to mast cells?

(a) Neutrophils.
(b) Basophils.
(c) Eosinophils.
(d) Monocytes.

Q 11: The anticoagulant of choice in hematological studies is:

(a) Trisodium citrate
(b) Heparin
(c) EDTA
(d) Fluoride

Q12: If a client blood sample is being tested only for a complete blood count, the client can:

(a) Eat and drink normally before the test.
(b) Fast for a certain amount of time before the test.
(c) Dictate the tests to be analyzed
(d) Choose the staff to attend him/her

(Q13)The most important practice in preventing the spread of disease is:

(a) Wearing masks during patient contact
(b) Proper handwashing
(c) Wearing disposable lab coats
(d) Identifying specimens from known or suspected HIV and HBV patients with a red label

(Q14) International nomenclature ratio (INR) is used in relation to which investigation

(a) Partial thromboplastin time with kaolin
(b) Thrombin time
(c) Prothrombin time index
(d) Clot solubility

(Q15) Given the hemoglobin concentration of a healthy individual as 14 g/dL, estimate the PCV value

(a) 28%
(b) 42%
(c) 7%
(d) none of the above

(Q16) The most appropriate time to label a bedside blood smear in a ward is

(a) Immediately after making the smear
(b) Before pricking the patient
(c) After staining the smear
(d) Just before reporting the smear

(Q17) The following can be deduced from a peripheral blood film examination EXCEPT?

(a) Type of anemia
(b) Cause of anemia
(c) Severity of anemia
(d) Leukocytosis

(Q18) The following are characteristics of good laboratory practice in a hematology laboratory EXCEPT?

(a) Analyzing internal quality control material
(b) Using the given standard operating procedures
(c) Ensuring proper disposal of used specimens
(d) Using gloves ONLY when bleeding a patient

Q19: Hb SS, HbAS and HbAA are determined by carrying out the following procedure:

(a) Coagulation screening
(b) Total haemogram
(c) ESR
(d) Hb electrophoresis

Q20: Another term to describe low platelet count is:

(a) thrombocytopenia
(b) thrombocytosis
(c) leukocytopenia
(d) plateletosis

SECTION B (ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS) 30 MARKS

(Q1) Briefly describe pre-analytical errors that would compromise hematological procedures (10 marks)

(Q2) Outline the standard operating procedure of performing an ESR test (10 marks)

Q3 (a) Define a full haemogram profile (5mks)
(b) Describe the reasons for requesting a complete blood count (5mks)