Histopathology Theory Paper

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SECTION A (20 MARKS)

  1. In the small intestine, absorption is done by:
    a. The lumen
    b. Serous coat
    c. Mucus coat
    d. Villi
    e. Mesothelial cells
  2. Glycerin jelly is used to mount
    a. Permanent preparations
    b. Temporary preparations
    c. Sections stained with oil red ‘O’
    d. Sections stained with Giemsa
    e. Sections cleared in xylene
  3. The portion of the tubercle bacilli which gives it its acid fastness is:-
    a. The flagella
    b. Amino acid
    c. Carbohydrate
    d. Lipid mycolic acid coating
    e. Its red colour
  4. Vacuum impregnation is useful during processing because it:-
    a. Reduces time in paraffin wax and chloroform
    b. Reduces time in paraffin wax
    c. Cuts down the cost of processing
    d. Improves ribboning
    e. Facilities staining reaction
  5. The fixative of choice for the fixation of gross specimens is:-
    a. Bouin’s solution
    b. Picric acid
    c. 10% buffered formal saline
    d. Zeker formal
    e. Wentworth’s solution
  6. Infiltration time with molten paraffin wax depends on:-
    a. Thickness of tissue
    b. The fixative used
    c. Costing out
    d. Density of the tissue
    e. The dehydrating agent used
  7. What is the purpose of tissue clearing after dehydration?
    a. To give colour contrast
    b. To remove water from tissue
    c. To remove alcohol and replace it with a solvent of the mountant
    d. To fix the tissue
    e. To raise the refractive index of the tissue and make the differentiation more evident
  8. Disadvantages of water soluble waxes are:-
    a. Slow penetration
    b. Being insoluble in dehydrating agents
    c. Blocks being kept in dry atmosphere
    d. Difficulty in floating sections
    e. Failure to readily dissolve in water
  9. The most important procedure in the preparation of tissue for microscopic examination is:-
    a. Proper preservation
    b. Identification of the organ
    c. Choice of clearing agent
    d. Staining technique
    e. Choice of mounting media
  10. Xylene is used in histology for:-
    a. Dehydrating tissues
    b. Clearing sections
    c. Impregnating tissue
    d. Staining sections
    e. Fixing tissues
  11. Formalin pigments are found in:-
    a. Lymphocytes
    b. Skin
    c. Lung
    d. Scalp
    e. Blood forming organs
  12. 20% isopropyl alcohol is used for:-
    a. Differentiating haematoxylin
    b. Removing folds from ribbons of sections
    c. Testing the end-point of decalcification
    d. Dehydration sections
    e. Softening tissue
  13. The following are steps in mitosis EXCEPT:
    a. Telophase
    b. Anaphase
    c. Prophase
    d. Multinucleation
    e. Metaphase
  14. Postmordanting has the following effect:-
    a. Formation of pigments
    b. Removing of blood clots
    c. Removing of calcium salts
    d. Making tissue opaque
    e. Improving staining property of sections
  15. Dehydration of sections entails:
    a. Using ascending grades of alcohol
    b. Using descending grades of alcohol
    c. Using absolute alcohol
    d. Using 95% alcohol
    e. Using neat cedar wood oil
  16. The following is true about D.P.X
    a. Contains Distrin
    b. Used to make temporary preparations
    c. Used to make permanent preparations
    d. Contains water
    e. Does not make sections transparent
  17. The ideal thikness of sections for light microscopy is:
    a. 3-3mm
    b. At least 10 µm
    c. 3-5cm
    d. 3-5µm
  18. Which of the following epithelia lines the thyroid?
    a. Ciliated
    b. Columnar
    c. Stratified
    d. Pseudo stratified
    e. Cuboidal
  19. The commonest microtome used to cut paraffin wax sections is:
    a. Cryostat
    b. Base sledge
    c. Rotary
    d. Freezing microtome
    e. Ultra-microtome
  20. The following are functions of mRNA
    a. Reduction of globulins
    b. Protein synthesis
    c. Formation of ribose sugars
    d. Formation of pigments
    e. Formation of deoxyribose sugars
  21. The third stage of mitotic cells division is:-
    a. Telophase
    b. Prophase
    c. Metaphase
    d. Interphase
    e. Anaphase
  22. The following is/are structures found in the cytoplasm of a cell:-
    a. DNA, nucleoli, golgi apparatus
    b. Golgi apparatus, lysosome, mitochondria
    c. Nucleoli, chromosome, glycogen
    d. Nucleoli, chromosome, lipoproteins
    e. Genes, glycogen, endoplasmic reticulum
  23. All of the following comprises of the body systems except
    a. Musculo skeletal
    b. Reproductive
    c. Glandular
    d. Nervous
    e. Excretory
  24. When labeling histological specimens ordinary ink is not used because
    a. It is toxic
    b. It may colour the specimen
    c. It may cause autolysis of specimen
    d. It may dissolve in the reagents used during processing
    e. It may harden the tissue
  25. Vapour fixatives include the following:-
    a. Mercuric chloride
    b. Potassium dichromate
    c. Formaldehyde
    d. Osmium tetroxide
    e. Picric acid
  26. Washing out is normally done on tissue fixed in:-
    a. 10% formal saline
    b. Acetic acid
    c. Potassium dichromate
    d. Alcohol
    e. Picric acid
  27. Chemicals frequently encountered in medical laboratories with proven carcinogenic properties include:
    a. Xylene
    b. Alcohols
    c. Methylene blue
    d. O-touluidine
    e. Methyl violet
  28. Colloidin embedded tissue blocks are stored in:-
    a. Cold dry place
    b. An incubator
    c. 70% alcohol
    d. Absolute alcohol
    e. Distilled water

SECTION B: ESSAY QUESTIONS

  1. Write short notes on:
    i. Section Adhesives(5 mrks)

ii. Smear Fixatives (5 mrks)

  1. Briefly describe three methods thsat can be employrd to assess complete decalcification (10 mrks).
  2. Write short notes on care of a microscope (10 marks)