Clinical Chemistry Theory Paper

SECTION A (20 MARKS)

  1. Occult blood can be detected:
    (a) In blood
    (b) In stool
    (c) Only when the patient has diarrhea
    (d) Using orthotolidine test
    (e) After a heavy meal
  2. Bence-Jones proteins are:
    (a) Soluble at 1000C
    (b) Precipitate at 1000C
    (c) Precipitate between 400C-600C
    (d) Are sulphosalicylic acid positive
    (e) Are boiling test positive
  3. Negatively charged particles in an atom are called:-
    (a) Cations
    (b) Electrons
    (c) Anions
    (d) Isotopes
  4. The pH of a solution can be maintained at a chosen value through:
    (a) Catalysis
    (b) Hydrolysis
    (c) Alkalation
    (d) Buffering
  5. The pH of pure water is:
    (a) 5.0
    (b) 6.0
    (c) 7.0
    (d) 8.0
  6. Using haemolysed blood samples in analyses is avoided because:
    (a) It gives false increase to some analytes
    (b) It improves absorbance
    (c) Bilirubin is not affected
    (d) Apparatus get damaged
  7. The proteins comprises the following:
    (a) Globulins and albumin
    (b) Globulins and mycoglobin
    (c) Mycoglobin and albumin
    (d) Albumin and phosphates
  8. The fuctional unit of the kidney is a:
    (a) Medulla
    (b) Nephron
    (c) Cortex
    (d) Capsule
  9. Excess passage of urine is called:
    (a) Anuria
    (b) Polyuria
    (c) Asthenoguria
    (d) Oliguria
  10. To determine creatinine clearance, the samples to be analysed include urine and:
    (a) Blood
    (b) Stool
    (c) Urine
    (d) CSF
  11. The appearance of urine may be altered in the following conditions
    (a) Obstructive jaundice
    (b) Hypertension
    (c) Cardiac failure
    (d) Anuria
  12. Conjugated proteins include:
    (a) Glutamic acid
    (b) Haemoglobin
    (c) Cholesterol
    (d) Glycerol
  13. A normal C.S.F sample contains the following EXCEPT:
    (a) Erythrocytes
    (b) Urea
    (c) Chlorides
    (d) Glucose
  14. Human chorionic gonadotrophin harmone is secreted during:
    (a) Menstruation
    (b) Sleep
    (c) Pregnancy
    (d) Weddings
    (e) Mating
  15. At pH3 and in the presence of proteins Bromocresol green indicator changes colour from:
    (a) Red to Yellow
    (b) Yellow to Green
    (c) Yellow to Blue
    (d) Colourless to Green
  16. Flames emission photometry can be used in the estimation of
    (a) Barium
    (b) Oxalates
    (c) Potassium
    (d) Chloride
    (e) Sodium
  17. Glucose is oxidized by atmospheric oxygen in the presence of glucose oxidase enzyme to:
    (a) Gluconic acid
    (b) Keto sugar
    (c) Amino sugar
    (d) Osazones
    (e) Mucin
  18. Diabetes mellitus differs from diabetes insipidus because the SG of urine in the former is:
    (a) Higher
    (b) Lower
    (c) Normal
    (d) Cannot be measured
    (e) Not of diagnostic value
  19. The detection of chlorides in urine using silver nitrate is based on the:
    (a) Precipitation of Cl-
    (b) Neutralization of Cl-
    (c) Absorption of Cl-
    (d) Adsorption of Cl-
    (e) Assimilation of Cl-

SECTION B

  1. Discuss Bence Jones proteins. 10MARKS
  2. List five (5) functions of the liver. 10MARKS
  3. List five ( 5) functions of the kidney 10MARKS