Clinical Chemistry Theory Paper

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SECTION A: MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS (20 MARKS)

Q1. Occult blood can be used to diagnose the following medical condition:
a) Indigestion
b) Malabsorption
c) Peptic ulcer
d) Nephrotic syndrome

Q2. Nitrite positive test in urinalysis is suggestive of:
a) Fungal infection
b) Bacterial infection
c) Nephrotic syndrome
d) Kidney failure

Q3. Which of the following condition causes jaundice?
a) High levels of white blood cells
b) Anaemia
c) Massive haemolysis
d) Lack of vitamin B complex

Q4. The following equation is associated with Beer-Lambert’s law:
a) A=2-log%T
b) A=log%T-2
c) A=2=%T
d) A=OD-2log%T

Q5. What is the purpose of a cuvette in spectrophotometric analysis?
a) Source of heat
b) Source of electricity
c) Measures the amount of light absorbed
d) Holds the solution to be measured

Q6. What is the standard international unit for blood glucose?
a) Mg/l
b) g/l
c) U/L
d) Mmol/l

Q7. Which of the following is a kidney function test?
a) Serum Calcium levels
b) Serum Bilirubin levels
c) Serum Creatinine levels
d) Serum magnesium levels

Q8. Uric acid is a by-product of:
a) Haemoglobin metabolism
b) Protein metabolism
c) Purine metabolism
d) Muscle metabolism

Q9. Which of the following is a mandatory pre-operative test?
a) Serum magnesium
b) Serum potassium
c) Serum bilirubin
d) Serum proteins

Q10. Severe gastro-enteritis (GE) causes:
a) Hypokalemia
b) Jaundice
c) Volume over-load
d) anaemia

Q11. Creatinine clearance test measures:
a) Functional capacity of the kidney
b) Liver function capacity
c) Rate of creatinine formation
d) Rate of urea formation

Q12. Which of the following anticoagulant is ideal for CSF biochemistry?
a) EDTA
b) Heparin
c) Fluoride
d) Sodium citrate

Q13. The following are liver function tests EXCEPT?
a) Total bilirubin
b) Aspartate transaminase
c) Creatine kinase
d) Alkaline phosphatase

Q14. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) requires the patient to fast for:
a) 8-12 hours
b) 5-10 hours
c) 12-24 hours
d) 7-10 hours

Q15. Urea is a by-product of:
a) Hormone metabolism
b) Red blood cells break down
c) Protein metabolism
d) Cholesterol metabolism

Q16. Which of the following blood component is NOT normally found in the glomerular filtrate?
a) Red blood cells
b) Glucose
c) Urea
d) Calcium

Q17. Serum sodium can be measured in the laboratory by use of the following principle:
a) Chromatography
b) Electrophoresis
c) Ion selective electrode
d) polarization

Q18. In bacterial meningitis, CSF glucose is usually:
a) Elevated
b) Within normal reference ranges
c) Reduced
d) Not measured

Q19. Excessive loss of albumin in urine is known as:
a) Nephrotic syndrome
b) Hepatorenomegally
c) Septic shock
d) Renal tubular acidosis

Q20. Where is albumin manufactured in the body?
a) Kidney
b) Pancreas
c) Spleen
d) Liver

SECTION B
ANSWER ALL THE QUESTIONS (30 MARKS)

Q1. Explain the causes of the three classes of jaundice (10 marks)

Q2. Discuss five causes of pre-analytical errors in the laboratory (10marks)

Q3. Explain five scenarios that may require the calibration of clinical chemistry equipment (10 marks)