Clinical Chemistry Theory Paper

1. 6 mmol/L of urea is equivalent to:-

a)360mg/L

b) 60mg/L

c) 36mg/L

d) 360g%

 

2. The product of protein deamination is:-

a) Creatinine

b) Creatine

c) Used in clearance tests

d) Creatine anhydride

 

3. Parameters used to assess liver function include:-

a) Albumin level

b) Plasma urea

c) Lipase activity

d) Trypsin activity

 

4. Ketoacidosis is associated with:-

a) Diabetes inspidus

b) Raised plasma pH

c) Post-prandial hyperglycaemia

d) Acute starvation

 

5. False-positive results with albustix may be due to:-

a) Alkaline urine

b) Albuminuria

c) Acidic urine

d) High altitude

 

6. Detection of CSF total proteins is achieved by:-

a) Albustix

b) Turbidimetric methods

c) Using phenol solutions

d) Pandy test

 

7. In gastric juice analysis, free acidity refers to:-

a) Combined acid

b) Strong acid

c) Total acid

d) HCl

 

8. The highest level a substance is present in plasma before it is excreted is:-

a) Indicative of diabetes mellitus

b) Indicative of diabetes inspidus

c) Renal threshold value

d) Known as glucosuria

 

9. Biuret test involves the reaction of copper ions with:-

a) 2-OH

b) 2C=O

c) 2-CONH

d) 2-NH2

 

10. Which of these can be used to make equivalent standards of urea:-

a) Sodium sulphate

b) Potassium sulphate

c) Ammonium chloride

d) Barium sulphate

 

11. Decarboxylated diacetic acid is known as:-

a) Aceto acetic acid

b) Principal ketone body

c) Beta-hydroxy butyric acid

d) Acetone

 

12. The separation phases in paper chromatography are:-

a) Normal phase

b) Fast phase

c) Stationary phase

d) Second phase

 

13. The occult blood test detects:-

a) The presence of WBC’s in urine

b) Malignancies of the gastrointestinal tract

c) Peroxidase activity

d) Presence of dyes in stool

 

14. Which of the following plasma substance(s) will decrease in liver failure:-

a) Glucose

b) Creatinine

c) Uric acid

d) Transaminase

 

15. Which of the following is/are pre-analytical error(s):-

a) Reagent quality

b) Specimen collection technique

c) OD reading

d) Reporting of test result

 

16. Simple lipids are derived from:-

a) Esters

b) Alcohol

c) Acetone

d) Carboxylic acids

 

17. The following vitamin is required in blood clotting:-

a) B6

b) C

c) B12

d) K

 

18. Water prepared by distillation is:-

a) Sterile but has soluble salts

b) Sterile and free from soluble salts

c) Not sterile but free from soluble salts

d) Sterile only

 

19. To prepare 10ml of a 1:200 serum dilution, you need:-

a) 2ml of serum

b) 0.05ml of serum

c) 1 ml of serum

d) 0.5 ml of water

 

20. Glycosuria with hyperglycaemia denotes:-

a) Diabetes mellitus

b) Diabetes inspidus

c) Lowered renal threshold

d) Renal glycosuria

 

21. Tetrabromophenol blue is an indicator in:-

a) Clinistix

b) Urostrat

c) Glucostix

d) Albustix

 

22. At pH below their isoelectric points, proteins:-

a) Ionize as bases

b) Acquire zwitterionic state

c) Acquire cationic state

d) Are anions

 

23. The direct reacting bilirubin is also:-

a) Unconjugated

b) Insoluble in water

c) Water soluble

d) Very toxic

 

24. In indirect agglutination test, agglutination is interpreted as:-

a) Positive

b) False-positive

c) False negative

d) Negative

 

25. The surface tension of urine can be lowered by:-

a) Bile salts

b) Glucose

c) Amino acids

d) Bilirubin

 

26. What is the waste end product of purine metabolism:-

a) Urea

b) Uric acid

c) Creatine

d) Creatinine

 

27. Characteristics of enzymes include:-

a) Activated by fluoride

b) Reacting at 37oC

c) Specificity

d) Resists UV denaturation

 

28. Blood glucose levels are directly regulated by:-

a) ADH

b) Cortisol

c) Glucagon

d) Epinephrine

 

29. Oxidative deamination of proteins yields:-

a) Urea

b) Amino acids

c) Peptide residues

d) Peptide bonds

 

30. Amylase activity assay is performed to diagnose:-

a) Gastric disorders

b) Diabetes mellitus

c) Chronic pancreatitis

d) Acute pancreatitis

 

31. A control in clinical chemistry is:-

a) Same as a standard solution

b) A solution of known reference range

c) A solution of known dilution

d) A solution used to calibrate a machine

 

32. Parenteral stimulants of gastric juice secretion include:-

a) Alcohol

b) Gruel

c) Insulin

d) Tea without milk

 

33. The ability of plasma proteins to buffer blood is due to their ability to:-

a) Neutralize H+ and OH

b) Chelate Ca2+

c) Form peptide bonds

d) Form hydrogen bonds

 

34. Markers of cardiac diseases is/are:-

a) Lipase assay

b) Alkaline phosphatase activity assay

c) Raised tryptic activity values

d) Raised creatine kinase activity

 

35. Major fluid compartments of the body include:-

a) Intracellular

b) Interstitial space

c) Extravascular

d) Intravascular

 

36. Vitamin intermediates with hormone-like activity include:-

a) B1

b) E

c) K

d) D

 

37. Man and other primates excrete nitrogen in form of:-

a) Uric acid

b) Ammonia

c) Urea

d) Creatinine

 

38. Diabetes inspidus is characterized by:-

a) The urine of high specific gravity

b) Lack of antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

c) Excess insulin secretion

d) Deficiency of aldosterone

 

39. Select from the list below cation(s) that are tested for in serum:-

a) Sodium

b) Calcium

c) Caesium

d) Magnesium

 

40. Enzymes of clinical importance analysed in stool include:-

a) Amylase

b) Trypsin

c) Lipase

d) Diastase

 

41. Chloride shift in the body ensures:-

a) Fluid balance

b) Sodium balance

c) Cationic/anionic balance

d) Potassium balance