Clinical Chemistry Theory Paper

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SECTION A
Q1 The following anticoagulant is used for collecting blood for glucose analysis:-
(a) Citrate
(b) EDTAS
(c) CAPD
(d) Fluoride

Q2 Which of the following is a cause for haemolysis in blood specimen:-
(a) Hyperlipaedemia
(b) Polyuria
(c) Wet blood containers
(d) Use of plain tubes in collecting blood specimen

Q3 Icteric specimen refers to:-
(a) Elevated glucose in a specimen
(b) Elevated urea in a specimen
(c) Elevated bilirubin in a specimen
(d) Elevated haemoglobin in a specimen

Q4 Which of the following is NOT a liver function test:-
(a) CPK
(b) ALT
(c) AST
(d) ALP

Q5 Glucagon hormone is produced by:-
(a) Heart
(b) Lungs
(c) Liver
(d) Pancrease

Q6 Ion selective electrodes estimates:-
(a) Sodium
(b) Urea
(c) Creatinine
(d) Uric acid

Q7 Haematuria refers to presence of:-
(a) Creatinine in urine
(b) Stool in urine
(c) Urine in stool
(d) Blood in urine

Q8 The smallest part of an element which takes part in a chemical reaction is:-
(a) Molecule
(b) Anion
(c) Cation
(d) Atom

Q 9 Which of the following is the most precious specimen in the laboratory:
(a) Stool
(b) Tears
(c) Blood
(d) Cerebral spinal fluid

Q 10 Production of large volumes of urine is described as:-
(a) Anuria
(b) Polyuria
(c) Oliguria
(d) Aciduria

Q 11 Analytical precision and accuracy is tested by the use of :
(a) Standard solution
(b) Blank solution
(c) Reference solution
(d) Control solution

Q 12 Ketone bodies are likely to be found in urine of a patient :
(a) Hepatitis
(b) Acute renal failure
(c) Diabetis mellitus
(d) Virilism

Q 13 A sample blank is used in the analysis of :
(a) Creatinine
(b) Sodium
(c) Phosphorus
(d) Bilirubin

Q 14 A specimen with a lot of fats can be referred to as :
(a) Icteric
(b) Haemolyzed
(c) Lipaemic
(d) Alkapuric

Q 15 Which of the following is a test for detecting bence jones protein :
(a) Flame photometry
(b) ISE
(c) Brandshaw
(d) Jaffes reaction test

Q16 Which of the following are liver cells?
(a) Scavenger
(b) Nephron
(c) Hepatocytes
(d) Livercyte

Q17 Which of the following is NOT a unit of measure of blood urea nitrogen?:
(a) mmol/L
(b) mg/dl
(c) mg%
(d) pmol/L

Q18 Haemolysed serum sample affects potassium levels by:
(a) Reducing the concentration
(b) Standardizing the values
(c) Elevating concentration
(d) Minimizing the values

Q19 Which of the following is the most critical step in OGTT procedure:-
(a) Fasting blood glucose report
(b) Amount of blood
(c) Urine volume
(d) Bleeding tools

Q 20 Which of the following is used to measure the exact volume of a liquid:
(a) Pasteur pipette
(b) Graduated pipette
(c) Volumetric pipette
(d) Conical flask

SECTION B: ESSAY QUESTIONS (30 marks)
Q1 List five analytical errors that compromises the quality of a laboratory report (10 marks)

Q2 Describe how you would prepare a urine container for24 hour protein analysis (10 marks)

Q3 a)Describe a glucometer and mention two reaction methods of glucose analysis (5marks)
b)The following are the results of a glucose analysis: Optical density of glucose standard=1.5, Optical density of the plasma sample=0.6 and glucose standard concentration=20 mmol/L. Calculate the sample glucose concentration (5marks)