Clinical Chemistry Theory Paper

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SECTION A (ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS) 20 MKS)

(Q1) The following are goals of clinical chemistry except:

(a) Confirmation of clinical impression,
(b) Staff recruitment in a hospital
(c) Provide therapeutic guideline for the purpose of treatment.
(d) Interpret and translate laboratory measurements and examinations.

(Q2) One of the following is the principle cause of diabetes ketoacidosis:

(a) Acetone
(b) Acetoacetic acid
(c) β-hydroxybutyrate
(d) Sulphide

(Q3) Which of the following is the physiologically active type of thyroid hormone?

(a) T3
(b) FT4
(c) TSH
(d) T4

(Q4) In the investigation of bone metabolism disorder in children, the following parameter is of no diagnostic value:-

(a) Calcium
(b) ALT
(c) ALP
(d) Phosphorus

(Q5) Which of the following factor does not effectively determine the hormone-receptor complex concentration:-

(a) The number of hormone molecules available for complex formation
(b) The number of receptor molecules available for complex formation
(c) The binding affinity between hormone and receptor
(d) The globulin concentration of the hormone

(Q6) The following reason has made it impossible to form an artificial or bio-artificial liver

(a) Functional complexity
(b) Location
(c) Liver disorders
(d) Liver disorders management

(Q7) Which of the following is the best marker in the investigation of pancreatic disorders?

(a) Bile juice
(b) Jaudice
(c) Alpha amylase
(d) Pancreatic juice

(Q8) Which of the following is a relationship between HDL-C and LDL-C

(a) Are the major types of lipids that circulate in the bloodstream

(b) HDL-C contain less protein and more cholesterol than LDL-C

(c) Triglyceride is mostly determined by the amount of the HDL-C and LDL-C in a measured sample of blood.

(d)A random blood sample will give an appropriate concentration for both lipoproteins.

(Q9) During childhood, circulatory levels of the sex steroids and gonadotropins are

(a) Similar in both sexes
(b) Testosterone is higher in male child.
(c) FSH is higher in female child.
(d) Not produced at all.

(Q10) The following parameters constitute a lipid profile:

(a) TC,TG,HDL-C,VLDL-C,LDL-C/HDL-C
(b) TC,TG,HDL-C,LDL-C,TC/HDL-C
(c) TG,TP,ALB,BUN
(d) VLDL-C,TC,TG,AST

(Q11) gestational diabetis mellitus affects:-

(a) Any gender.
(b) All females.
(c) Some pregnant women.
(d) Old women.

(Q12) The following does not play an important role in achieving the goal of provision of quality laboratory results:

(a) Quality reagents
(b) Proper analytical methods
(c) Medical staff
(d) Good infrastructure

(Q13) The following does not change irrespective of the number of successive dilutions made in a solution:

(a) Concentration
(b) Volume
(c) Solute
(d) Initial solution

(Q14) The visible spectrum extends from about 400 nanometers (nm) to about 700nm. The following equipment measures coloured solutions using this range of wavelength.

(a) Spectrophotometer
(b) Colorimeter
(c) Potentiometer
(d) Ph meter

(Q15) How much 70% (v/v) alcohol can be made from 100ml of 90% alcohol?

(a) 128.6 ml
(b) 77ml
(c) 63ml
(d) 0.016ml

(Q16) The best anti-coagulant for collecting blood for most biochemical analysis is:-

(a) EDTA
(b) Heparin
(c) Sodium fluoride
(d) Toluene

(Q17) Delay in a blood specimen reaching the laboratory is categorized under:

(a) Pre-analytical error
(b) Post-analytical error
(c) Analytical error
(d) Random error

(Q18) The main purpose of vacuatainer tubes colour coding is:

(a) Identify the type of blood specimen and the appropriate tests to be done
(b) To indicate the volume of blood specimen to be contained
(c) To indicate the nature of laboratory
(d) Identify the staff to handle the specimen

(Q19) Blood gas analysis is carried out using:

(a) Skin puncture blood
(b) Arterial blood
(c) Venous blood
(d) Clotted blood

(Q20) Which of the following is the latest technological methodology of electrolytes estimation:-

(a) Ion selective electrode
(b) Fluorimetry
(c) Electrophoresis
(d) Flame photometry

SECTION B: ANSWER ALL QUESTION (30 MARKS)

(Q21 (a) Describe the acquisition and utilization of clinical chemistry laboratory data (5MKS)
( b) Explain the importance of internal quality control in analytical procedures (5mks)

(Q22) outline the factors considered in choosing the best instrument for analytical purposes (10mks)

(Q23) (a) Outline the importance of testosterone hormone in a fertile female (3mks)
(b) Briefly describe the diurnal variation of testosterone in a fertile male (3mks)
(c)Thyroid hormones bound to protein molecule are not physiologically active. EXPLAIN (4mks)