Blood Transfusion Theory Paper

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SECTION A: MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS (20 MARKS)

(Q1) which of the following blood group is referred to as a universal donor:

(a) A+
(b) B-
(c) O+VE
(d) O-VE

(Q2) In vivo sensitization of red blood cells can be detected in the laboratory by:

(a) Crossmatch techniques
(b) Titration
(c) Reverse grouping
(d) Direct coombs tests

(Q3) The recovery of antibodies attached onto the surface of red blood cells is referred to as:

(a) Elution
(b) Absorption
(c) Merging
(d) Immunization

(Q4) Acute immunologic blood transfusion reactions include all the following EXCEPT:

(a) Haemolytic reaction
(b) Allergic
(c) Transfusion related acute lung injury
(d) Graft versus host disease (transplant related)

(Q5) It is a policy to screen donated blood for the following transfusion transmitted infections in Kenya EXCEPT:

(a) Syphillis
(b) HIV 1
(c) HIV 2
(d) Malaria

(Q6) Candidates for Rhogam must satisfy the following conditions:

a) The newborn must be Rh Positive and not jaundiced

b) The mother must be Rh negative and antibody screening test positive
c) The mother must be Rh negative and antibody screening test negative
d) The mother must be Rh positive with high titre of anti-D

b) The mother must be Rh negative and antibody screening test positive
c) The mother must be Rh negative and antibody screening test negative
d) The mother must be Rh positive with high titre of anti-D

(Q7): The following is part of routine pre-transfusion testing?

a) Review of the patients past records
b) Screening the recipient’s serum for unexpected antibodies.
c) A minor cross match
d) Direct coombs test

(Q8) The human antigens that must be tested for in blood compatibility tests are:

(a) ABO and RhD
(b) Minor and RhD
(c) Major and RhD
(d) Major and ABO

(Q9)Serum from blood group A agglutinates;

(a) B cells
(b) A cells
(c) O cells
(d) Oh cells

(Q10) The blood bag contains the following anticoagulant:

(a) EDTA
(b) Heparin
(c) Sodium citrate
(d) Citrate phosphate dextrose adenine

(Q11) the purpose of controls while performing ABO blood grouping is to:

(a) Increase the speed of reaction
(b) Check the potency of the reagents
(c) Reduce the cost of reagents
(d) Minimize the risk of infection

(Q12) When a natural antibody A is mixed and incubated with its corresponding blood group-specific substance, the following takes place

a) Agglutination
b) Hemolysis
c) Precipitation
d) Neutralization of Anti-A
.
Q13) The Anti-human Globulin Phase in antibody screening test detects:

a) Incomplete antibodies
b) Cold antibodies
c) Natural antibodies
d) Antibodies that react at 4oc

(Q14) Transfusion of blood products is mainly based on:

(a) availability of donated blood
(b) gender of recipient
(c) class of the hospital admitting the recipient
(d) the clinical condition of the recipient

(Q15) The ability of an antigen to stimulate the production of the corresponding antibody is:

(a) immunogenicity
(b) agglutination
(c) specificity
(d) avidity

(Q16) Why is it necessary to Wash of donor cells in a cross-match procedure?

(a) To make the cells brighter
(b) To enhance the interpretation of results
(c) To remove excess cells
(d) To clear soluble antigens such as Lea, Sdaand Cha which may interfere with the procedure

(Q17)Why is normal saline used to make 4% cell suspension instead of distilled water?

(a) Normal saline is readily available
(b) It expensive to make distilled water
(c) Distilled water will neutralize the Ph of the procedure
(d) Normal saline does not haemolyze the erythrocytes

Q18) A person with type AB blood would have _ antigens on red blood cells, and antibodies carried in the plasma.

(a) A and B; neither anti-A nor anti-B
(b) Neither A nor B; both anti-A and anti-B
(c) B; anti-A
(d) A; anti-B

(Q19) Erythroblastosis fetalis, also known as hemolytic disease of the newborn, most often occurs in __ mothers carrying __ fetuses.

(a)Rh+; Rh-
(b) Rh-; Rh+
(c) Type A; type O
(d) Type B; Type A

(Q20)The most common blood transfusion reaction is:

(a) Hemolysis
(b) Febrile nonhemolytic reactions
(c) Fluid overload
(d) Transmission of viruses

SECTION B (ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS) 30 MARKS

(Q21) Briefly describe the following types of blood transfusions:

(a) Autologous (4mks)—transfusion of own blood or blood from an identical twin—the introduction of foreign antigens, antibodies, infectious or toxic agents is limited
(b) Homologous(3mks)
(c) Exchange(3mks)

(Q22) Outline the major indications/reasons for transfusion of blood and blood products (10mks)

(Q23) Describe the persons who can not be considered as blood donors (10mks)