Blood Transfusion Theory Paper

  1. Antibodies that do NOT cause agglutination of cells are:

a) Complete antibodies

b) Sensitizing antibodies

c) Regular antibodies

d) Saliva agglutinins


2. 22% Bovine albumin is added to the test in order to:

a) Lower the di-electric constant

b) Increase the repulsion between the red cells

c_ Increases the zeta-potential

d) Decrease the zeta potential#


3. Pre-treatment of red blood cells with enzymes:

a) Increases the charged particles

b) Exposes the antigenic sites on the RBCs

c) Digests the red blood cells membrane exposing the


d) Preserves antigenic sites


4. The following parents can give rise to offspring of all

the four ABO

blood groups:

a) Group A and B parents

b) Group B and AB parents

c) Group A and AB parents

d) Group AB and O parents


5. The precursor substances is first acted upon by:

a) A gene

b) O gene

c) B gene

d) H gene#


6. Bombay phenotype individuals:

a) Have antigens A and B in their red blood cells

b) Have antibodies A and B only in serum

c) Lack ABO antibodies only in serum

d) Are universal recipients


7. An individual grouped as Du positive?

a) Is rhesus negative

b) Lacks all rhesus antigens

c) Is rhesus null phenotype

d) Is rhesus positive


8. A cross-match will:

a) Prevent immunization

b) Detect errors in ABO-typing

c) Guarantee normal survival of donors rbcs in the


d) Not detect errors in ABO grouping


9. Rhogam:

a) Is a purified gamma D globulin

b) Is a purified gamma E globulin

c) Coats the maternal red blood cells

d) Lyses the maternal red blood cells


10 Substances that are capable of reacting with an

antibody but does not

stimulate antibody formation are called:

a) Carrier molecule

b) Hapten

c) Immunogen

d) Carbohydrate


11. The best storage temperature for donated blood

awaiting crossmatch is:

a) 0 – 100 C

b) 18 – 250C

c) 20 – 240 C

d) 2 – 80C


12. Rhesus null red cells:

a) React with all rhesus antibodies

b) React with anti-D only

c) Are commonly found in Africans

d) May exhibit stomatocytosis


13. Cells are washed to:

a) Make them clean

b) Avoid Haemolysis

c) Remove unwanted proteins

d) Avoid Agglutination


14. Anti-H can be prepared from phytoagglutinin:

a) Iberis amara

b) Dolichos biflorus

c) Vicia graminea

d) Ulex europeaus


15. The purpose of reverse grouping is to check:

a) Antigens in red blood cells

b) Agglutinins in serum

c) Agglutinins in plasma

d) Agglutinins in red blood cells


16. The following fact refers to complements:

a) Can be preserved at -50 for a maximum of 48 hours

b) Can be destroyed by heating at 560C or above

c) Promote inflammatory response

d) Are not found in fresh normal plasma


17. Indirect coomb’s test detects:

a) Maternal antibodies in HDNB

b) Paternal antibodies in HDNB

c) Foetal antigens

d) Maternal antigens


18. The most reliable grouping technique is:

a) Slide method

b) Micro-well method

c) Tile method

d) Tube method


19. Anti-human globulins is obtained from:

a) Immunized mothers

b) Bovine

c) Hybrid rabbit

d) Lectins


20 Pyrogens are mostly common causes of :

a) Toxicity

b) Allergic reactions

c) Anaphylactic reactions

d) Febrile reactions