Blood Transfusion Theory Paper

  1. Cellular immunity is associated with: –

a) transfusion reaction

b) Dysuria

c) Hypersensitivity

d) Homograft rejection

e) Production of antibodies

 

2. The characteristics of a natural antibody are/is: –

a) Incomplete antibodies

b) Complete antibodies

c) Are about 11,000 A˚ length

d) Length usually 250 A˚

e) Can cross the placental barrier

 

3. Blood group-specific substance of secretors: –

a) Are found in saliva

b) Occur on the surface of RBCs

c) Are controlled by Se – gene

d) Are common causes of transfusion reaction

e) Are found only in adults

 

4. a) The individuals have phenotype A2 which of the following are the possible genotypes: –

a) A2B

b) A3O

c) A2A2

d) AIO

e) AIAI

 

5. Haptens: –

a) Are antigens with high antigenicity

b) Will cause production of antibodies in individual lacking it

c) Are antigens with little antigenicity

d) Have no specificity

e) Are mainly non-red cell antigens found in body fluids

 

6.  The conversion of CI to its active form requires not only the presence of the antigen-antibody complex but also the availability of: –

a) Mg++

b) Na+

c) K+

d) Ca++

e) Cl ions

 

 

7. The complement components are synthesized in the: –

a) Bone marrow

b) Liver

c) Spleen

d) Lymph nodes

e) Kidneys

 

 

 

8. Heating human serum at 56˚C for 30 min is

a) Meant to coagulate immunoglobulins

b) To inactivate complement

c) To enhance the antibody activity

d) To inactivate proteases

e) To inhibit bacterial growth

 

9 Given the phenotype as DCĉē. The following are possible genotypes: –

a) RIr

b) Rr’’

c) R0R0

d) R2R2

e) RIR0

 

10. If a woman is Rh-Negative and her husband is Heterozygous for D antigen then the probability that one of their children will inherit D is: –

a) 75%

b) 60%

c) 50%

d) 80%

e) 90%

 

11. The anti E will react with which of the following red blood cells

a) Rzry cells

b) R1r cells

c) RIRI cells

d) RIr cells

e) RzR2 cells

 

12. Anti rh” will agglutinate the following cells.

a) r’r’

b) R0r

c) R1r

d) RzR1

e) r”r1

 

 

13. The following features are found in the Haemolytic disease of the Newborn due to anti D.

a) Low bilirubin levels

b) High Haemoglobulin levels

c) Low reticulocyte count

d) Increased osmotic fragility

e) Decreased osmotic fragility

 

14. The risk of kernicterus is greatest infants with serum bilirubin level in excess of:-

a) 340 mol/l

b) 342 mol/l

c) 240 mol/l

d) 684 mol/l

e) 245 mol/l

 

15. The blood for exchange transfusion in cases of hemolytic disease of the Newborn should:-

a) Use maternal blood for cross-match

b) Use maternal serum for cross-match

c) Use donor’s serum for cross-match

d) Not be more than 5 days old

 

16. A suspected case of hemolytic transfusion reaction would be

confirmed with the presence of:-

b) elevated levels of alkaline phosphates

c) elevated levels of plasma hemoglobin

d) an increase of platelets

e) free phosphates in urine

a) free hemoglobin in urine

 

17. In acute transfusion reaction.

a) some antibodies may be bound on the patient’s RBC’s

b) IGA antibodies will be detected as the cause

c) Leucocytosin occurs

d) The haptoglobin level is decreased

e) The recipient dies of transfusion overload

 

18. In extravascular transfusion reaction, cell destruction occurs in the:-

a) Liver

b) Spleen

c) Brain

d) Bone marrow

e) Heart

 

19. Which of the following antibodies can cause extravascular transfusion reactions?

a) Lewis

b) Lutheran

c) ABO

d) Kell

e) Rhesus

 

20 If the father is Xg positive, and the mother is Xg Negative:-

a) All children will be Xg positive

b) All sons will be Xg Negative

c) Half of his daughters will be Xg positive

d) Half of his sons will be Xg Negative

e) All daughters will be Xg positive

 

21. The following blood group antigens may be found in the body fluids:-

a) Rhesus

b) Kell

c) Duffy

d) Lewis

e) Lutheran

 

22. The Dosage effect is particularly demonstrated in red cells from blood groups.

a) ABO blood group system

b) MN blood group system

c) Duffy blood group system

d) Rhesus blood group system

e) Lewis blood group system

 

23. The following techniques are used for the screening of hepatitis B surface antigen in blood bank

a) Radioimmunoassay

b) Counter-immunoelectrophoresis

c) Elution-absorption method

d) Absorption-inhibition method

e) Sandwich method