Blood Transfusion Theory Paper

  1. of the following blood, the group is referred to the as universal donor?

a) A+

b) B-

c) O+VE

d) O-VE

2. The recovery of antibodies attached to the surface of red blood cells is referred to as:

a) Elution

b) Absorbtion

c) Merging

d) Immunization


3. It is a policy to screen donated blood for the following transfusion-transmitted infections in Kenya EXCEPT:

a) Syphillis

b) HIV 1 Which

c) HIV 2

d) Malaria


4. The following is part of routine pre-transfusion testing?

a) Review of the patient’s past records

b) Screening the recipient’s serum for unexpected antibodies.

c) A minor crossmatch

d) Direct Coombs test


5. Serum from blood group A agglutinates;

a) B cells

b) A cells

c) O cells

d) Oh cells


6. The purpose of controls while performing ABO blood grouping is to:

a) Increase the speed of reaction

b) Check the potency of the reagents

c) Reduce the cost of reagents

d) Minimize the risk of infection


7. The Anti-human Globulin Phase in antibody screening test detects:

a) Incomplete antibodies

b) Cold antibodies

c) Natural antibodies

d) Antibodies that react at 4oc


8. The ability of an antigen to stimulate the production of the corresponding antibody is:

a) immunogenicity

b) agglutination

c) specificity

d) avidity


9. Why is normal saline used to make 4% cell suspension instead of distilled water?

a) Normal saline is readily available

b) It expensive to make distilled water

c) Distilled water will neutralize the Ph of the procedure

d) Normal saline does not haemolyze the erythrocytes


10. Erythroblastosis fetalis, also known as hemolytic disease of the newborn, most often occurs in ______________ mothers carrying ______________ fetuses.

(a)Rh+; Rh-

(b) Rh-; Rh+

(c) Type A; type O

(d) Type B; Type A


11. Immunoglobulin can be defined as:

a) A plasma protein found in the globulin fraction.

b) An antibody which causes clumping together of red cells that contain the corresponding antigen

c) A red cell antigen associated with agglutination (clumping) when mixed with specific agglutinin.

d) An antibody which fixes complement when it combines with corresponding antigen resulting into lysis of red cells (hemolysis)


12. Which of the following describes the reverse grouping technique?

a)   Known antibodies are used to detect antigen on red blood cells.

b)   Known cells are used to detect the antibodies in the serum.

c) Washing of cells using large volumes of saline.

d) Mixing of cells and physiological saline in a test tube.


13. Which of the following is NOT a phase in the crossmatch technique?


a) Saline room temperature phase

b) Saline 37oC phase

c) Albumin room temperature phase

d) Coombs37oC phase


14. Which of the following is used to determine Hb for the prospective donors?

a) Copper sulphate method

b) Copper dichromate method

c) Copper bicarbonate

d) Copper chloride method


15. The storage temperature for cryoprecipitate is:

a) Deep freeze with glycerol at -80oC for 5 yrs

b) -18oC for 1 yr.

c) -30oC or – 18oC for 1 yr.

d) at room temperature (24OC) for 5 days


16. Which of the following is a major characteristic of an antigen:

a) Specificity

b) Selectivity

c) Immunogenicity

d) Reactivity


17. Which of the following statement is TRUE for the zeta potential of the red cell?

a) Produces a positive ionic charge

b) Attracts a negative charge

c) Is measured at the membrane surface

d) Results from a net negative red cell membrane charge


18. What is the purpose of control in grouping and cross-matching techniques?

a) Classifies the laboratory performing the test

b) Determines the knowledge of staff

c) They act as a check the suitability of reagents and techniques used.

d) It justifies the test cost


19. One of the following is a type of blood transfusion reaction:

a) Intravascular reaction (in the veins)

b) Pack reaction

c) Laboratory reaction

d) Pilot tube reaction


20. Rouleaux formation can be defined as:

a) the piling up of cells on top of each other and appears as coins

b) scattering of cells

c) separation of cells

d) none of the above